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Data modelLink

Tables are the basic data structure. Tables have columns. Each column has a particular data type. Tables are exposed as JSON APIs under the /api/<entityName> path.

Automatic creationLink

Import CSV or XLS file and you can let Daptin create the entities for you based on intelligent data pre-processor.

Manual creationLink

YAML/JSON schemaLink

If you are looking for a more reproducible way, design your entities and create JSON or YAML files. These files can be used again to create an exact same replica.

Multiple schema json files can be uploaded, and changes are merged accordingly.

Lets imagine we were creating a todo application and wanted to keep a track of the following for each todo item

Todo list example

  • the todo text field - title

YAML example

- TableName: todo
  - Name: title
    DataType: varchar(500)
    ColumnType: label
    IsIndexed: true

JSON example

  "Tables": [
      "TableName": "todo",
      "Columns": [
          "Name": "title",
          "DataType": "varchar(500)",
          "ColumnType": "label",
          "IsIndexed": true

Data validationsLink

Along with the fields mentioned above, we might want certain validations and conformations whenever we store a new todo


  • title cannot be empty
  • order has to be numeric

Once we have come up with the above picture in mind, we can use one of the following ways to tell daptin about this.

Daptin uses the excellent go-playground/validator library to provide extensive validations when creating and updating data.

It gives us the following unique features:

  • Cross Field and Cross Struct validations by using validation tags or custom validators.
  • Slice, Array and Map diving, which allows any or all levels of a multidimensional field to be validated.

Validation ExampleLink

JSON exampleLink

JSON files are the primary way to create new entities in daptin. The above two ways ultimately create a JSON file or fetch from the market.

The JSON for our todo entity will look as follows:

        "Tables": [{
            "TableName": "todo",
            "Columns": [{
                    "Name": "title",
                    "DataType": "varchar(500)",
                    "ColumnType": "label",
                    "IsIndexed": true
                    "Name": "completed",
                    "DataType": "int(1)",
                    "ColumnType": "truefalse",
                    "DefaultValue": "false"
                    "Name": "deadline",
                    "DataType": "date",
                    "ColumnType": "date",
                    "IsNullable": true
                    "Name": "order",
                    "ColumnName": "item_order",
                    "DataType": "int(4)",
                    "ColumnType": "measurement",
                    "DefaultValue": "10"
                    "Name": "text",
                    "DataType": "text",
                    "ColumnType": "content",
                    "IsNullable": true
            "Conformations": [{
                "ColumnName": "order",
                "Tags": "numeric"
            "validations": [{
                "ColumnName": "title",
                "Tags": "required"
  • Name: Name is a human readable name
  • Column Name: Name of the column in the table
  • Column Type: The type of the column. Daptin supports a variety of types and these allow daptin to give you useful options in future (eg for viewing a timeline, a date/datetime column is required)
  • Default value: Columns can have default values, which is used a new row is created and no value for that column is specified.

YAML exampleLink

YAML example for todo entity is as follows

- TableName: todo
  - Name: title
    DataType: varchar(500)
    ColumnType: label
    IsIndexed: true
  - Name: url
    DataType: varchar(200)
    ColumnType: url
    IsNullable: true
  - Name: completed
    DataType: int(1)
    ColumnType: truefalse
    DefaultValue: 'false'
  - Name: schedule
    DataType: date
    ColumnType: date
    IsNullable: true
  - Name: order
    ColumnName: item_order
    DataType: int(4)
    ColumnType: measurement
    DefaultValue: '10'
  - Name: text
    DataType: text
    ColumnType: content
    IsNullable: true
  - ColumnName: order
    Tags: numeric
  - ColumnName: title
Tags: required

You can choose to work with either json or yaml. Once the schema is ready, it can be uploaded directly from daptin dashboard.

Online entity designerLink

The entity designer is accessible from dashboard using the "Online designer" button. Here you can set the name, add columns and relations and create it. This is a basic designer and more advanced features to customise every aspect of the entity will be added later.

Entity designer

Column specificationsLink

Columns of the entity can be customized:

Property Name Property Type Description
Name string human readable name, can be skipped
ColumnName string column name in the table
ColumnDescription string human readable description
ColumnType string column type is a rich type of the column
IsIndexed boolean true to add an index on this column
IsUnique boolean true to set a unique constraint on this column
IsNullable boolean are null values allowed
Permission uint64 permission column (check authorization docs)
DataType string the column type inside the database
DefaultValue string default value if any (has to be inside single quotes for static values
Options Array[value,label] Valid values if column in enum type

Column typesLink

Daptin supports a variety of rich data types, which helps it to automatically make intelligent decisions and validations. Here is a list of all column types and what should they be used for

Type Name Description Example
id an identity column, mostly for internal purposes 1
alias a foreign key column uuid v4
date full date, no time 2017-12-30
time time/time interval, no date 12:34:54
day day of the month 1 to 31
month month of the year 1 to 12
year Year 2017
minute minute of the hour 0 to 59
hour hour of the dat 0 - 23
datetime date + time (not stored as timestamp, served at date time string) 2017-12-30T12:34:54
email email
name column to be used as name of the entity daptin
json JSON data {}
password password - are bcrypted with cost 11 $2a$11$z/VlxycDgZ...
value value is enumeration type completed
truefalse boolean 1
timestamp timestamp (stored as timestamp, served as timestamp) 123123123
location.latitude only latitude 34.2938
location latitude + longitude in geoJson format [34.223,64.123]
location.longitude only longitude 64.123
location.altitude only altitude 34
color hex color string #ABCDE1
rating.10 rating on a scale of 10 8
measurement numeric column 534
label a label for the entity, similar to name but can be more than one red
content larger contents - texts/html/json/yaml very long text
file uploads, connect storage for using this
url Urls/links

Data relationsLink

A data oriented system with no relational knowledge of the data is next to an Excel sheet. Specifying relations in your data is the most important thing after creating your entities.

Relations are constraints among tables and help you keep clean and consistent data. Relational data is easily accessible over APIs using a path structure like /api/<entityName>/<id>/<relationName> and the response is consistent with

Checkout the relation apis exposed by daptin.

!!! example"YAML example"

- Subject: todo
  Relation: has_one
  Object: project

!!! example"JSON example"

  "Relations": [
      "Subject": "todo",
      "Relation": "has_one",
      "Object": "project"

Relations in JSON/YAML schemaLink

When uploading schema using a JSON / YAML file, relations can be added in the same file and daptin will create appropriate constraints and foreign keys in your underlying database.

Continuing with our example of todos, lets say we want to group todo's in "projects" and each todo can belong to only a single project.

Lets design a "project" entity:

- TableName: project
  - Name: name
    DataType: varchar(200)
    ColumnType: name
    IsIndexed: true

A very simple table with just a name column. Now we can tell daptin about the relation between todos and projects

- Subject: todo
  Relation: has_one
  Object: project

This tells daptin that todo "has_one" project.

Relations typesLink

Any entity can be associated to any other entity (or to itself) as one of the follows

Relation Name Relation Descriptio Can be empty
belongs_to a single object relation No
has_one a single object relation Yes
has_many many related objects Yes

Default relationsLink

Every entity created on daptin has at least two relations

Relation Type Related Entity Purpose
belongs user owner of the object
has many usergroup belongs to usergroup

These relations help you precisely control the authorization for each user.

Read more about authorization and permissions

Multiple relationLink

There can be a scenario where two entities are related in more then 1 way. Consider the following example

  • A blog entity
  • A post entity
  • Blog has many posts
  • Each blog can have a "highlighted post" (blog has one "highlighted post")

To achieve the above scenario, our schema would look like as follows

- TableName: blog
  - Name: title
    DataType: varchar(500)
    ColumnType: label
  - Name: view_count
    DataType: int(11)
    ColumnType: measurement
- TableName: post
  - Name: title
    DataType: varchar(200)
    ColumnType: label
  - Name: body
    DataType: text
    ColumnType: content
- TableName: comment
  - Name: body
    DataType: text
    ColumnType: content
  - Name: likes_count
    ColumnName: likes_count
    DataType: int(11)
    ColumnType: measurement
- Subject: comment
  Relation: belongs_to
  Object: post
- Subject: post
  Relation: belongs_to
  Object: blog                   // this is our post belongs to blog relation
- Subject: blog
  Relation: has_one
  Object: post
  ObjectName: current_post
  SubjectName: current_post_of   // this is our highlighted post relation

Notice the "SubjectName" and "ObjectName" keys which helps to name our relations more intuitively.

SQL constraintsLink

belongs toLink

  • A column is added to the subject entity, which refers to the Object entity, set to non nullable

has oneLink

  • Same as above, but nullable

has manyLink

  • A join table is created

Importing dataLink

Upload one of these files:

File Usage
Schema JSON Create schema and apis
CSV Auto create entity and upload data
XLSX Auto create entity and upload data
Data JSON Upload data from dumps

Excel file uploadLink

Excel upload provides an easy way to create entities. This takes away the complexity of writing each column type. Daptin uses a combination of rules to identify columns and their types based on the data in the excel.

You can upload data from XLS. Daptin will take care of going through your XLS file and identifying column types. This is one of the easiest and fastest ways to create entities and uploading data in daptin. You can specify relations among entities later from the online designer.

CSV file uploadLink

CSV upload provides an easy way to create entities. This takes away the complexity of writing each column type. Daptin uses a combination of rules to identify columns and their types based on the data in the csv.

You can upload data from CSV. Daptin will take care of going through your XLS file and identifying column types. This is one of the easiest and fastest ways to create entities and uploading data in daptin. You can specify relations among entities later from the online designer.

Data conformationsLink

Daptin uses the excellent leebenson/conform library to apply conformations on data before storing them in the database

  • Conform: keep user input in check (go, golang)
  • Trim, sanitize, and modify struct string fields in place, based on tags.

Use it for names, e-mail addresses, URL slugs, or any other form field where formatting matters.

Conform doesn't attempt any kind of validation on your fields.

Data auditingLink

To enable recoding of all historical data for a particular entity, enable data audit for it in the worlds configuration.

Audits are ready only and cannot be manipulated over api. You can configure the permission for your use case.

All changes in daptin can be recorded by enabling auditing. History is maintained in separate audit tables which maintain a copy of all columns at each change. Audit table are entities just like regular entities. All Patch/Put/Delete calls to daptin will create an entry in the audit table if the entity is changed.

Audit tablesLink

For any entity named <X>, another tables <X>_audit is added by daptin. Eg if you enable auditing of the user_account table, then a user_account_audit table will be created.

The audit table will contain all the columns which are present in the original table, plus an extra column is_audit_of is added, which contains the ID of the original row. The is_audit_of is a foreign key column to the parent tables id column.

Audit rowLink

Each row in the audit table is the copy of the original row just before it is being modified. The audit rows can be accessed just like any other relation.

Audit table permissionsLink

By default, everyone has the access to create audit row, and no one has the access to update or delete them. These permissions can be changed, but it is not recommended at present.

Type Permission
Audit table permission 007007007
Audit object permission 003003003